Common causes and preventive measures of fires in

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Common causes of fires on campus and preventive countermeasures

the university campus is a place for people to gather and a key unit of fire safety. It undertakes the task of cultivating talents for modernization and conducting scientific research for the country. Once a fire occurs, innocent students will be killed or injured or scientific research materials will be destroyed. This is not only a huge loss of social wealth, but also a serious impact on teaching order, social stability and scientific and technological progress. Therefore, to find out the causes of frequent fires in Colleges and universities, formulate corresponding fire prevention and extinguishing measures, effectively curb the momentum of frequent fires in Colleges and universities, and provide a good fire safety environment for the vast number of students and researchers is not only the common goal of all universities and education administrative departments, but also an important problem to be solved by the fire department

I. common causes of campus fires

(I) teaching staff and students have weak awareness of fire safety. Universities are places of teaching and scientific research. Many teaching staff and students pay less attention to other things because they devote themselves to studying knowledge. Their awareness of fire safety is often weak, their concept of fire protection legal system is not strong, their thoughts are paralyzed, they lack prevention awareness and safety knowledge, their discipline is lax, and violations of fire safety regulations such as fire and electricity use occur from time to time

(II) the use of fire and electricity does not respect safety regulations, and there are many causes of fire. If wires and fuses are pulled and connected randomly, fire may be caused by short circuit of wires or heating due to poor contact; Some of them often trip due to power overload. It is convenient to use copper wire or iron wire to replace the fuse, so that the circuit cannot be fused in time in case of overload and failure, resulting in wire fire. Or light candles on the bed, smokers throw cigarette butts and matches that have not been extinguished, burn sundries in the dormitory, use gas and liquefied gas improperly in the dormitory, and use kerosene stove, gasoline, alcohol and other inflammables and explosives improperly, resulting in the ignition of open flames. There are also electric bulbs that bake near combustibles for a long time and catch fire; Using electric heaters without supervision and burning a fire; Electrical appliances used for a long time without maintenance, wire insulation aging, leakage short circuit and fire, etc

(III) there are many old-fashioned buildings and many congenital fire hazards. In Colleges and universities with a history of decades or even hundreds of years, many wooden structures are still in use. First, these wood structure buildings have a long history, with aging roofs, serious damage, and cracks in ridges and sealing ridges everywhere; Second, at that time, the norms of building design, fire prevention and other aspects were not complete and the legal system was not perfect, resulting in unreasonable layout of buildings, blocked fire passages, insufficient fire separation, no fire separation in large buildings, a large number of flammable materials used in internal decoration and evacuation walkways and many other congenital fire hazards; Third, the phenomenon of open laying of power lines is common in old buildings, and some wires are also directly fixed on wooden beams or rafters. At the same time, the power allocation of these old houses can not keep up with the needs of the development of the times. Once the house leaks rain and causes electricity leakage or the heated wires burn these seasoned timbers, the consequences are unimaginable

(IV) the situation of university campus is complex and personnel mobility is large. Fire places include teaching buildings, office buildings, laboratories, canteens, gymnasiums, hotels, family buildings, student dormitories, Faculty dormitories, school run factories, rental facade rooms, etc., which can be said to involve various places in the campus. University campus is a concentrated and open small society and a complex public place. From the perspective of architecture, there are high-rise, multi-storey civil buildings, workshops, warehouses, and some underground civil air defense projects. In terms of purpose, there are not only teaching places, public entertainment places, hotels, restaurants, commercial points, but also laboratories, dormitories and office buildings. Buildings are relatively concentrated and personnel are relatively dense. Some schools have living areas, teaching areas, family areas, and even affiliated primary schools, affiliated middle schools and other affiliated units, objectively forming the characteristics of complex personnel and high mobility in university campuses. In particular, the establishment of the market economic system has created favorable conditions for the coexistence of various economic systems in university campuses. The phenomenon of renting campus buildings or storehouses along the street is common, which further increases the difficulty of fire safety management

(V) the building has high personnel density and few safety passages. College Students' Education in school is different from that of primary and secondary school students. Colleges and universities implement centralized accommodation for students because students come from all over the country. At present, the construction area of most of the student dormitories is generally about 3000 square meters per building, and some are even larger. The number of students living in a building is about 1000. When most colleges and universities build student dormitories, although fire safety passages have been reserved in consideration of the needs of fire safety, many units have closed most fire safety exits or added anti-theft doors from the perspective of daily anti-theft safety or student personal safety, leaving only oneortwo exits for daily access, making the safety exits exist in name only. Once a fire occurs, it can be imagined that casualties will be caused. In order to prevent boys and girls from rushing into the dormitory, the school also allows boys and girls to live in half the building respectively, adding doors and partitions in the middle of the corridor to separate the dormitory. The dormitory is divided into two, and the fire-fighting facilities such as stairs, fire hydrants, emergency exits are also divided into two, which greatly increases the fire risk

(VI) the school invested little in fire safety. The university is a public institution, and its annual expenditure mainly depends on the financial allocation of governments at all levels. Under the condition that the national financial resources are limited and the education expenditure is mainly guaranteed, the funds for fire safety are very limited. Today, with the change of university management system, the competition among schools is more intense. The focus is on the competition of teachers and teaching hardware equipment. It is difficult to invest in the construction of fire-fighting infrastructure and the rectification of fire hazards that are not easy to see. In addition, there are few people in the Security Department of the University who really implement fire safety management, some even only one person, and some people also believe that the company has developed a "unique and innovative" technology, which has multiple jobs, resulting in energy dispersion

II. Countermeasures against campus fire in Colleges and universities

(I) pay more attention to campus fire safety. Colleges and universities are places where the country trains all kinds of senior professionals, and college students place the future and hope of the motherland on them. Once a fire breaks out in Colleges and universities, especially in densely populated places, causing casualties among students, the possible losses can not be measured by money, and the social and political impact will be huge and bad. Educational administrative departments at all levels and leaders of colleges and universities should recognize the importance of fire protection in Colleges and universities from the perspective of maintaining social stability and sustainable development, and give as much support as possible to the fire safety management departments in Colleges and universities from both human and material resources

(II) carry out various forms of fire protection publicity and education. The school should have sufficient understanding of the weak fire awareness of students and teaching staff, and should strengthen the publicity and education of fire protection. Regular fire safety publicity and training should be carried out in various forms on campus. Students should be publicized by posting fire posters, fire publications, networks, holding fire cultural activities and other forms, and regularly organize fire drills, so as to enhance their legal concept of fire protection, improve their awareness and heart of fire safety, and make them master fire prevention, fire fighting Darius Adamczyk, President and CEO of Honeywell characteristic materials and technology group, said: "Regulators around the world are taking various measures to deal with climate change awareness and consciously abide by fire safety rules and regulations. Fire safety education should be carried out when freshmen enter the school, and the content of fire safety education can be included in military training projects, so that freshmen can experience the importance of fire safety in the school as soon as they enter the school. They should increase investment and support; regularly hold extracurricular fire knowledge lectures; and develop from teaching staff and students Volunteer firefighters; Hold fire games and fire fighting drills; Use audio-visual education equipment to carry out targeted fire prevention publicity, etc

(III) establish a fire safety management system and pay close attention to its implementation. In terms of fire safety management, the school should establish and improve various fire safety management systems, implement the fire safety system, and implement the post fire safety system in key parts and places such as dormitories, libraries, laboratories, canteens, so that each post and place has a special person responsible for fire safety, carry out regular and irregular safety inspections, discover and eliminate fire hazards in time, and ensure the implementation of various systems, Configure fire-fighting facilities and equipment in accordance with relevant national regulations, and ensure that they are in good condition and effective

(IV) strictly abide by fire safety regulations in work and study. When studying and working in classrooms, laboratories and research laboratories, we should strictly abide by various safety management regulations, operating procedures and relevant systems. Before using instruments and equipment, carefully check the power supply, pipeline, fire source, auxiliary instruments and equipment, etc. if they are properly placed, avoid increasing their pressure value for operation; Whether the process is clear, etc., and then carry out the operation after making preparations. Clean up carefully after use, turn off the power supply, fire source, gas source, water source, etc., and remove sundries and garbage. When using inflammable and explosive dangerous goods, we must pay attention to the fire safety regulations and operate meticulously according to the regulations

(V) strengthen the fire safety management of student dormitories. The fire in students' dormitories not only brings inconvenience to students' study and life, but also more importantly, it is easy to cause heavy property losses and casualties due to the large number of objects, crowded people and poor evacuation in the dormitories. The school should take the student dormitory as the focus of the school's fire prevention work. While facilitating students' daily study and life, it should strengthen the management of fire and electricity in the dormitory. It is strictly forbidden to connect and pull wires and use high-power electrical appliances in the dormitory, strengthen inspection, and stop students' violations in time. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the fire safety passage of the student dormitory is unblocked in case of accidents. In the dormitory, you should consciously abide by the dormitory safety management regulations, and do not pull and connect wires randomly; Do not use electric stove, fast heating, electric cup, rice cooker and other electrical appliances; Do not use open flames in dormitories; Do not bring inflammables and explosives into the dormitory; Do not burn objects in the dormitory; Do not smoke in the dormitory; Timely report to the management personnel or relevant departments in case of unsafe hidden dangers; Take good care of fire-fighting facilities and fire-fighting equipment, and do not move or use them for other purposes at will; When there is no one in the room, the electrical appliances and power switches should be turned off

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