Take machine tools as an example to explore the Un

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Take machine tools as an example to explore the experience of the United States as the world's first manufacturing power

the United States, Germany and Japan are recognized as machine tools, manufacturing and industrial powers in the world. The machine tool industry is the cornerstone of manufacturing and industrialized powers, which can be clearly seen from the development path of the United States. For example, industrialized countries are like a magnificent building. Manufacturing is the building body of the building, while machine tool industry is its solid foundation, which is often hidden. The United States, Germany and Japan have rich experience and deep experience in this regard, and pay special attention to the machine tool industry. Agricultural countries and developing countries lack rational understanding of this, and do not have a deep understanding of the importance, strategy and criticality of the machine tool industry

this article will comprehensively discuss the main experience of the United States as a machine tool industry and manufacturing, industrialized power

development history of American machine tool industry

the world's first machine tool (boring machine) was developed by British technicians in 1769 for the purpose of developing power and manufacturing. Watt invented the steam engine in 1765, and then Britain successively developed lathes (1797), gantry planers (1797), etc. In 1819, Britain built the first steam powered ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean. The world's first railway was built in 1829. The industrial revolution in Britain was advancing rapidly, and the industrialization of capitalist strength and industrial weighing method accelerated according to the weight changes of samples before and after the experiment. At that time, the machine tool technology in Britain was the most advanced in the world, and the strength of the machine tool industry was the strongest. At the 1851 London exhibition, Britain had the most technical talents, the most advanced machine tool technology and the largest number of exports to the United States, Germany and France. At that time, British manufacturing and industry dominated the world, and its metallurgical industry accounted for 75% of the world's total production

the development of machine tools in the United States is half a century later than that in Britain. In the second half of the 18th century, the United States was still an agricultural country, and all the machines and all kinds of machine tools needed for the development of its textile industry were purchased from Britain

however, the United States came from behind. Since the second half of the 19th century, machine tool technology has gradually replaced Britain. The key is that the United States attaches importance to research and innovation, and has taken three major steps in developing new technologies

in the first step, we should pay attention to the research of core material fire-resistant B1 thermal insulation material. Military Mauser hydraulic oil will oxidize the needs of large-scale production of coking guns in long-term work, develop tolerance and parts interchangeability technology, formulate tolerance standards, create a world precedent for efficient mass production, and create a number of special machine tools with different styles. In this process, in 1898, Taylor, who was born as a worker, developed a tungsten chromium alloy high-speed steel tool. The cutting speed was increased to 50m/min, and the productivity of American factories was generally increased by 60%

the second step, Ford invented the automobile (1896). In order to meet the needs of the development of the automotive industry and study the automation technology of mass production, the United States first created various electromechanical hydraulic controlled high-efficiency automatic machine tools in the world. Modular machine tools were developed in 1932, and the world's first automatic line of modular machine tools was created in 1934. The development demand of the automobile industry is heavily matched, and the subsidy standard from 2019 to 2020 is reduced by 40% on the basis of 2016, such as kits, bearings, motors, etc., thus promoting the great development of the manufacturing industry. In 1948, the United States established the world's first (set) automatic line with an annual output of 30million sets of bearings. By 1978, the United States had 6084 automatic production lines of various kinds, with the rapid development of large-scale and efficient automatic production, and its manufacturing and industrialization strength was greatly enhanced

third, after the full development of mass production automation, high-efficiency automatic machine tools and automatic lines for automobiles, bearings, motors, etc., in order to meet the needs of aircraft manufacturing complex parts and special material processing, after several years of in-depth principled and applied technical tests, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created the world's first digital control (NC) machine tool with a new control principle. In 1958, a machining center (MC) with automatic tool change and multi process compound machining was developed. With the rapid development of microelectronics and computer technology, NC machine tools are copied, promoted and applied all over the world

during the first World War (in) and the Second World War (in), some big countries in Europe and Asia were involved in the war, while the United States was far away in North America, providing a large amount of ordnance and weapons for the participating countries, which brought opportunities for the development of the American machine tool industry

main experience of the development of American machine tool industry

in 1783, the United States officially broke away from British rule and established its own country. In 228 years to 2011, it became the world's first powerful country in machine tool industry, manufacturing and industrialization. American industry has advanced technology, complete categories, high quality and efficiency, and a high degree of automation. Its labor productivity (the population of the United States is 317.7 million, and its per capita GDP in 2010 was 45307 US dollars) ranks first in the world. The United States has the largest output of major industrial products, such as oil, electricity, automobiles and aircraft. Its microelectronics industry, computer lasers, aerospace technology, bioengineering technology, nuclear energy utilization, research and development of new materials and new technologies are all leading in the world

today, its main experience in establishing the world's first powerful country in machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industrialization is certainly not comprehensive and in-depth. I only hope to provide it for you, especially for the practitioners of machine tool industry

attach importance to talents, knowledge and innovation

the history of world development fully shows that any country that attaches importance to talents, knowledge and innovators is strong, and vice versa

American education is one of the most successful education in the world. Each state implements a free compulsory education system of or years, which has always attracted the world's elite talents. From 1901 to 2001, 195 people won the Nobel Prize in natural science, accounting for one third of the world. There is a complete set of scientific methods and advanced systems for educating, selecting and employing people. It is not about people, regardless of personal gratitude and resentment. Since the independence of the United States, from the president to business leaders, to the grass-roots level, talents of all kinds have been brought into full play

today is the era of knowledge economy, and knowledge determines everything. In the United States, half of the teachers in primary and secondary schools are masters, and teachers in Colleges and universities are doctors

American products and technological innovation have long been in the leading position in the world. The above-mentioned special machine tools, efficient automatic machine tools, automatic lines, and numerical control (NC) machine tools have been leading in innovation for a century, leading the development of machine tool technology in the world. The United States leads the world in aerospace, space technology, polymer chemistry, bioengineering, the development and application of new materials and new energy, superconductivity, nuclear energy and other aspects

pay attention to quality, reliability, improve accuracy and efficiency, automation

the United States has developed various efficient automatic machine tools for turning milling, drilling and grinding, gear processing for the automotive industry, which are used for mass production. Only with high quality and reliability, can we carry out continuous high-quality and efficient production in two shifts and three shifts. In 1948, 30million sets of automatic bearing processing lines were established, and 6084 automatic production lines were developed during the year. The normal operation, high-efficiency and high-quality production are proof of quality and reliability. The automobile output of the United States was 400000 in 1913. The first modular machine tool automatic line appeared in 1934. The automobile output increased to 4.472 million in 1940 and 12.6816 million in 1973

quality is the foundation of product brand. The development of efficient automatic machine tools and automatic lines, the rapid increase of automobile production, the strength of the American machine tool industry, and the automobile industrialization ranking first in the world are all concrete proof of excellent quality. Through the development of efficient automation in mass production, the United States' perceptual and rational understanding of quality reliability has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, and is now second to none in the world

the United States pays special attention to the accuracy, efficiency and automation of machine tools and various products. Its ultra precision machining machine tool ranks first in the world. The precision and reliability of the high-precision coordinate grinder of American Moore company are well-known all over the world. The production automation level and labor productivity of machine tool plants, automobile plants, bearing plants and motor plants in the United States are the highest in the world

attach great importance to scientific research and pay close attention to basic theory, cutting-edge technology, strategic and directional research

the United States has a world-class scientific and technological team, and the number of scientists and engineers engaged in scientific research exceeds the sum of Germany, France and Japan

attach great importance to scientific research and development, and focus on major scientific research topics of basic theory, cutting-edge technology, strategy and orientation. In terms of basic scientific research, the United States is far ahead in the world. In 1946, the United States developed the world's first electronic digital computer. In 1969, the U.S. military linked four computers to create the Internet. Today, the computer and road information technology of the United States ranks first in the world

the national scientific research system of the United States is strong and consists of four parts:

(1) scientific research institutions of the government and defense departments

(2) scientific research institutions of industrial departments

(3) scientific research institutions of universities

(4) non profit scientific research institutions

about 30% of scientific research funds are provided by the government, and the rest are invested by enterprises, universities, etc. About 40% of the world's scientific research work is carried out in the United States, more than Germany, Britain, France and Japan combined

be familiar with users, aim at the market, seek truth from facts, pay attention to practical results, free competition, survival of the fittest, and make rational use of resources

the development of machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industry in the United States cooperates with each other tacitly, and has high personnel quality, sufficient talents, clear thinking, decisive action, strong leadership, strict organization, scientific management, clear tasks, seek truth from facts, and pay attention to practical results. Machine tool enterprises are well aware of user production and market needs. At the beginning and middle of the 20th century, machine tool enterprises were proficient in the development of production processes of users in various industries such as automobile, bearing, motor and aircraft, and put forward a variety of technical transformation schemes for them to choose according to their product processes. Free competition among enterprises and the survival of the fittest. Establish brand through product quality and reliability. The United States is rich in human, material and financial resources. It can rely on scientific knowledge and will never waste it. All these are outstanding. This is an important reason why the machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industrialization of the United States have developed rapidly and become the first powerful country in the world

in general, the experience of the United States in establishing the world's first machine tool industrial power is worth learning. The most critical thing is that the United States has grasped the three elements of human development - people, tools and resources. People, creating tools; People, rational use of resources, people are fundamental. After the founding of the United States in 1783, the United States led correctly, established various scientific systems, carefully organized and reasonably managed, and gave full play to the role of people, tools and resources. Therefore, it can stand out in a very short time and establish the world's first powerful country in machine tool industry, manufacturing and industrialization. (end)

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